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We've covered many topics related to Ginger Gold and the 1920s, and will soon cover interesting subjects related to my other books as well. This week's post is about Asylums in London.
Before the 1920s, those admitted to asylums often faced an uncomfortable, often prison-like existence where they were sometimes forced to partake in experimental treatments. Conditions were improved for many by an Act passed in 1890 that put certain restrictions on how patients could be physically restrained. Before the Act was passed, it was commonplace for individuals to be restricted by chains or straight-jackets. Patients who were uncooperative or who were at risk of hurting themselves were often locked in padded rooms or placed into crib-like beds that had bars over the top.
Asylums were segregated by gender and were very structured. Patients who were able to work often spent their days doing so. For most women this meant needlework or laundry and for men it often meant gardening, baking or physical labor. Many of these institutions were understaffed, with the majority of the staff lacking adequate training.
Women were often admitted to asylums against their will for alcoholism or for expressing radical beliefs. In some cases men who wanted to avoid the hassle of divorce would instead choose to admit their wives to an institution. For some women, entering an asylum was respite from gruelling housework or unhappy marriages. In less fortunate circumstances, the staff at these institutions were abusive, pushing previously functional people into mental decline.
During the 1920s, new treatments and drugs were being discovered. In some institutions, patients were drugged with barbiturates to make them less aggressive. Other forms of treatment being tested at the time were insulin therapy and fever treatment. Patients who were treated with fever treatment were purposely infected with malaria to induce a high fever that was believed to kill off pathogens causing mental impairment.
In the 1930s, Electroconvulsive Therapy and the Lobotomy were introduced as new forms of therapy for various types of mental illness. Both of these early treatments were extremely risky and could have lasting damaging effects. The ETC therapy could cause severe convulsions resulting in injury. However, it proved to be a fairly effective treatment for some patients. Lobotomies were an invasive procedure that involved removing a portion of the brain that was believed to be the source of mental illness. This procedure had varying levels of success, sometimes leaving patients impaired afterward.
In 1923 a women’s asylum in California called the Rockhaven sanitarium took a unique approach to treating their patients. Instead of inflicting punishments on their patients for their disturbed behavior, patients were treated with dignity and respect. Established by a former female nurse, Agnes Richards, the institution was revolutionary in many ways. Women at the institution were referred to as “ladies” rather than “patients” and participated in various fun activities such as picnics and dances. Many women flourished under the care of Rockhaven proving that the conditions of asylums could significantly affect outcomes for each patient. Read more about Rockhaven here (link).
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